Don E. Gibbons, Ph.D., NJ Licensed Psychologist #03513
This Blog is published for information and educational purposes only. No warranty, expressed or implied, is furnished with respect to the material contained in this Blog. The reader is urged to consult with his/her physician or a duly licensed mental health professional with respect to the treatment of any medical or psychological condition.

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The New Center for Counseling and Psychotherapy, LLC

The New Center for Counseling and Psychotherapy, LLC, is located at 675 Route 72 E Manahawkin, NJ 08050. Telephone us at(609)709-2043 and (609) 709-0009.Take Mill Creek Road South, just off Route 72, on the road to Beach Haven West.After about 400 feet, turn right into the office complex of Greater Coastal Realty. Then turn right and go past the Lyceum Gyn. Continue on to the Prudential Zack Building. We. are the last office at the end. We accept Medicare and most other major insurance.Weekend and evening office hours are avalable.

Friday, November 15, 2013

Is it Possible to Secrety Hypnotize Someone Without their Awareness?


In order to answer this question, we have to first ask what suggestion is, what an induction is, and how much of hypnosis is an art as opposed to pure science.

Let's take the question of suggestion first. If suggestion is the is the transmission of information in order to change one's views of reality (the self, the world, and the future), and hypnosis is the use of suggestion to accomplish these aims, then all communication may be viewed as hypnosis, even though it varies in the degree of its effectiveness.

An induction usually helps, because when you accept the expressed or implied suggestion that your mental processes are beginning to function differently (i.e., that you are hypnotized), it's easier to depart from the established "rules of evidence" that are inferred from your past experience and laid down by the society in which you live which enable you to decide just what is real and what isn't.

I like to think of hypnosis as a catalyst rather than a cause. When you have accepted the suggestion that you are hypnotized (as you understand it}, other events can occur more easily. In different settings (such as in your office vs. in a classroom), with different people (Client X vs. Client Y), and the use of different suggestions (suggestion A vs. suggestion B). you will, of course, get different results, some of which can be quite dramatic. That's where the "art" comes in (and of course, it's also an art to suggest that one has been hypnotized!).

Although covert hypnosis (sometimes referred to as "ambush hypnosis") can work occasionally with an unsuspecting person who is caught by surprise, much more often than not, people will catch on to what you are trying to do. They will either laugh at you, or become angry for insulting their intelligence, and/or suspect that you have an ulterior motive and report you as a suspicious person -- that is, if they don't decide to take the matter into their own hands and give you a "knuckle sandwich!'. And if anyone should still believe in the validity of "ambush hypnosis" (via NLP or any other means), tell that person to stop trying to cut in and go to the end of the line!







Wednesday, November 13, 2013

How to Change Your Life and the Lives of Others



There are two parts to an experience: what actually happens, and what you believe about what happens. The second part is by far the most important in determining just what that experience will become.

After Hurricane Katrina struck New Jersey, my wife and I were volunteering at the local high school working with those who were displaced by the storm. One elderly lady who had lost everything was a ray of light, cheering up all of those around her. Finally, someone asked her why she was so cheerful, and she replied, "When I turned eighty, i decided I wasn't going to worry about anything any more.'

I am fond of quoting a well-known story about a boy who had become shy and withdrawn because his face was disfigured by a birthmark -- until his grandmother told him that this was a special sign from God that he was destined for greatness. Although he did not become famous, he grew up to experience a much more successful life than he otherwise would have had were it not for his grandmother's prediction, which had become a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Recently, I suggested to a hypnotized client who had come to me to improve her self-confidence,, "Because of the hypnotic training you have received here, you are beginning to enter a new phase of your existence. Regardless of the goal you have set for yourself, if you can believe in it, you can believe it, and it you can believe it, you can make it happen. Believe it will happen, expect it to happen, feel it happening, and savor in advance the fruits of your success!" As she left the office, I noticed that she was humming to herself, and i have no doubt that these suggestions, and the others she received in a similar vein, will be effective.

Cognitive-behavioral psychologists refer to this process as re-framing: looking at something in a more positive light than before. When this re-framing applies to a person's self, or to the selves of others, it has the potential to change one's entire life!

However, I'm not talking about "positive thinking" or  "whistling in the dark" programs such as The Secret." I'm talking about the good old fashioned, roll-up your sleeves and get to work kind of motivation, which comes easily once you have enough faith in yourself. 

The central theme of the book, "The Secret," is that we create our own reality by "the law of attraction." If we send forth positive thoughts, then we attract positive events to us; and if we send forth negative thoughts, then we attract negative events. But if we really do create our own reality by sending forth positive or negative thoughts, then this effect should be apparent not only in individuals, but also in groups, in historical trends, and in society as a whole. Therefore, we should be able to examine the validity of "the law of attraction" by examining the degree to which it operates in these other areas of experience. I have listed below the comments which my friend Roy Hunter reports as having been made to individuals who are suffering from cancer and other maladies, and taken the liberty of constructing a reply to them.   
  • What did you do to attract cancer in the first place? What about all those people who get cancer because they are living in an area where there is a high level of carcinogens in the environment?
  • You have a disease consciousness. The Black Death killed between 75 and 200 million people, between 1348 and 1350. What could all those people have been thinking that caused such a plague to so suddenly come upon them?
  • You must have a karmic debt to pay off.  If you read The Diary of Anne Frank, you will get a good idea of the kind of person she was. Now consider the fate of Ann and others like her as they covered with lice and dying of hypothermia in a Nazi concentration camp during World War II. What did they do to deserve this?
  • Why can’t you create enough faith to be healed? Age is a wasting disease. And the survival rate for this particular disease is zero.
  • Don’t you know smoking will kill you? With 99% of the same genes as our closest simian cousins, the chimpanzees, and over a century of experimental research to back them up, most psychologists agree that short-term pleasure is often more important than long-term consequences in determining our behavior, particularly when it comes to matters of addiction.
  • Fat people are out of control. An African journalist recently stated that her greatest surprise in coming to the United States was to discover that in America, thin people are rich and fat people are poor, since in her own country the reverse is true. If this is the case, how can weight be a function of one's personal discipline rather than one's culture?
  • You have a poverty consciousness. The CIA World Factbook lists the United States as twelfth in per capita income, behind such nations as Norway and Hong Kong, yet most Americans are inclined to think of themselves as the richest nation in the world. If we create our own reality, why are we not in first place?
  • "Get out of the victim trap!" Tell the survivors of Stalinist tyranny who were imprisoned in Siberia that they shouldn't have been thinking so negatively about their situation that it caused them to wind up there.
  • Why did you create this problem? The CIA World Factbook lists the United States as fiftieth from the top in infant mortality compared with other nations. Explain to the parents of the babies who died because they were not given better medical care what they or their children did to create this problem.
  • What is God punishing you for?  If God is keeping quiet about His reasons, then what is the point of punishment?
  • If “The Secret” is not working for you, then you must be doing something wrong.  Maybe so!  On a recent radio interview show featuring a leading theoretical physicist who was commenting upon the latest discoveries in his field, a questioner asked him about the "law of attraction." He forcefully criticized the promulgators of this belief for misleading people, and assured the caller that the universe simply does not work that way. Perhaps what people who subscribe to this false doctrine are doing wrong is believing in "The Secret" in the first place.
Of course there can be negative and self-destructive attitudes within the personality which interfere with the successful accomplishment of a goal, and which contribute to the development of  psychosomatic conditions! But their operation and effects are well-documented in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

A more narrow, focused investigation of psychic abilities is the subject of ongoing research by the Parapsychological Association.  "an international professional organization of scientists and scholars engaged in the study of psi (or 'psychic') experiences, such as telepathy, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, psychic healing, and precognition.  The primary objective of the PA is to achieve a scientific understanding of these experiences." It also appears possible that some of these phenomena may be focused and directed using hyperempiria, or suggestion-enhanced experience, or by a method described by Claude Bristol in his book, The Magic of Believing, which is available in audio format on this blog free of charge.

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Humanistic Psychotherapy for Dealing With Life's Absurdities

Several years ago, I initiated the petition to establish the Division of Humanistic Psychology in the American Psychological Association, which became Division 32.

It has long been recognized that a warm and supportive atmosphere and a strong therapeutic alliance is essential in dealing with many of the problems which come before us. In this regard, I often think of the poem by Lewis Carroll, entitled, "The Walrus and the Carpenter," which describes what appears to be a journey between the therapist (whe walrus in the poem), and a carpenter (the client, who is a work in progress), as they outwit and defeat life's problems (the oysters).


The Walrus and the Carpenter - Lewis Carrol

The sun was shining on the sea,
Shining with all his might:
He did his very best to make
The billows smooth and bright--
And this was odd, because it was
The middle of the night.


The moon was shining sulkily,
Because she thought the sun
Had got no business to be there
After the day was done--
"It's very rude of him," she said,
"To come and spoil the fun!"


The sea was wet as wet could be,
The sands were dry as dry.
You could not see a cloud, because
No cloud was in the sky:
No birds were flying overhead--
There were no birds to fly.


The Walrus and the Carpenter
Were walking close at hand;
They wept like anything to see
Such quantities of sand:
"If this were only cleared away,"
They said, "it would be grand!"


"If seven maids with seven mops
Swept it for half a year.
Do you suppose," the Walrus said,
"That they could get it clear?"
"I doubt it," said the Carpenter,
And shed a bitter tear.


"O Oysters, come and walk with us!"
The Walrus did beseech.
"A pleasant walk, a pleasant talk,
Along the briny beach:
We cannot do with more than four,
To give a hand to each."


The eldest Oyster looked at him,
But never a word he said:
The eldest Oyster winked his eye,
And shook his heavy head--
Meaning to say he did not choose
To leave the oyster-bed.


But four young Oysters hurried up,
All eager for the treat:
Their coats were brushed, their faces washed,
Their shoes were clean and neat--
And this was odd, because, you know,
They hadn't any feet.


Four other Oysters followed them,
And yet another four;
And thick and fast they came at last,
And more, and more, and more--
All hopping through the frothy waves,
And scrambling to the shore.


The Walrus and the Carpenter
Walked on a mile or so,
And then they rested on a rock
Conveniently low:
And all the little Oysters stood
And waited in a row.


"The time has come," the Walrus said,
"To talk of many things:
Of shoes--and ships--and sealing-wax--
Of cabbages--and kings--
And why the sea is boiling hot--
And whether pigs have wings."


"But wait a bit," the Oysters cried,
"Before we have our chat;
For some of us are out of breath,
And all of us are fat!"
"No hurry!" said the Carpenter.
They thanked him much for that.


"A loaf of bread," the Walrus said,
"Is what we chiefly need:
Pepper and vinegar besides
Are very good indeed--
Now if you're ready, Oysters dear,
We can begin to feed."


"But not on us!" the Oysters cried,
Turning a little blue.
"After such kindness, that would be
A dismal thing to do!"
"The night is fine," the Walrus said.
"Do you admire the view?


"It was so kind of you to come!
And you are very nice!"
The Carpenter said nothing but
"Cut us another slice:
I wish you were not quite so deaf--
I've had to ask you twice!"


"It seems a shame," the Walrus said,
"To play them such a trick,
After we've brought them out so far,
And made them trot so quick!"
The Carpenter said nothing but
"The butter's spread too thick!"


"I weep for you," the Walrus said:
"I deeply sympathize."
With sobs and tears he sorted out
Those of the largest size,
Holding his pocket-handkerchief
Before his streaming eyes.


"O Oysters," said the Carpenter,
"You've had a pleasant run!
Shall we be trotting home again?'
But answer came there none--
And this was scarcely odd, because
They'd eaten every one.

Friday, October 18, 2013

The Twenty-First Century Revolution in Trauma Treatment

The first stage in psychotherapy with multiples and other trauma survivors is to make the client feel safe, in order to avoid triggering previous traumas. It is necessary when working with DID clients to rely more on providing an environment in which they can feel comfortable, instead of trying to uncover all of their previous traumatic memories, with the goal of providing "insight," which might only serve to re-traumatize them and extend the course of therapy indefinitely. (As one multiple who had previously been in therapy for seventeen years with no improvement exclaimed, "What insight? They were horrible!")  

The following video by Babette Rothschild (herself a victim of childhood trauma) illustrates how to overcome panic attacks by focusing awareness on the perception of here and now rather than on the internalized memories of previous trauma.



After this basic level of security and safety has been attained, client and therapist can then collaborate in the construction of a therapeutic relationship which will increase feelings of confidence and self-esteem, overcome anxiety, depression, and despair, and bring forth an optimistic outlook on life which enables them change the narrative of their life story. (Levine, 1997; Naparstek, 2004; Rothschild, 2000; Scaer, 2007).  These new methods of treatment by the world's leading trauma researchers and clinicians constitute  ". . .a paradigm for understanding trauma's far-reaching psychological and physical consequences, without which, psychotherapeutic interventions remain extremely limited, and at times harmful to our clients." (emphasis mine). 

Procedures such as these are rapidly dealing a death blow to outmoded, Twentieth-Century notions of "healing" based upon regression to cause, which is about as sophisticated and as useful as trying to housebreak a puppy by "rubbing his nose in it." The puppy will usually stop sooner or later, but is that because of our treatment or in spite of it? And if the "training" is vigorously pursued, could the frustration and anxiety thus engendered actually make new learning more difficult? 
The following video from PESI Seminars features some of the world's leading experts discussing how recent breakthroughts in the treatment of trauma, dissociation, and multiple personality are making it possible for clients who have gone years without improvement to finally begin to change.  


References
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, DSM-V, 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Forward, S. (1997). Emotional blackmail: When the people in your life use fear, obligation, and guilt to manipulate you. New York: Harper-Collins.  
Forward, S. & Buck, C. (2002). Toxic parents: Overcoming their hurtful legacy and reclaiming your life. New York: Bantam.
Levine, P.A. (1997). Waking the Tiger: Healing Trauma. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.
Naparstek, B. (2004). Invisible heroes: Survivors of trauma and how they heal. New York: Bantam.
Rothschild, B. (2000), The body remembers: The psychophysiology of trauma and treatment. New York: Norton.  (Click on the link for a YouTube book review.)
Scaer, R. C. (2007) The body bears the burden: Trauma, dissociation, and disease. New York: Routledge.

Thursday, October 10, 2013

Breakthroughs in Psychotherapy for Trauma, Dissociation, and Multiple Personality

Some people have children just so they can torture them! (Forward & Buck, 2002). Quite understandably, trauma, dissociation, and occasionally dissociative identity disorder (formerly called multiple personality disorder) are often the result. (Forward, 1997; McBride, 2008). Unfortunately, some therapists are inclined to doubt the existence of dissociative identity disorder and would rather act as if it did not exist, in order to discourage people from adopting what they consider to be a delusion. However, the research-driven Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (2013) expresses no doubt about whether or not dissociative identity disorder exists. Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is assigned the diagnosis code of 300.14, along with other dissociative disorders in this category which include dissociative amnesia (300.12), dissociative fugue (300.13), and depersonalization disorder (300.6).  

It is occasionally true that people who are not genuine multiples can sometimes be subtly encouraged to adopt the belief that they are. We all tend to be one person in one situation and someone else in another, because of the conflicting demands placed upon us in our daily lives. When this conflict becomes extreme, some people might be inclined to conclude that they do indeed have multiple personalities, in order to lessen their guilt and gain notoriety and attention, particularly if they are encouraged in this belief by an unsophisticated therapist. Genuine multiples, however, may say things like,  "I have to hide it, so that my family won't find out," and express suspicion of people who "flaunt" their diagnosis. 

The DSM states states that many people who do qualify for a diagnosis of DID have an early history of severe physical abuse. In addition to the main personality, which is frequently passive, dependent, guilty, and depressed, there are  two or more distinct identities or personality states, each one  having its own history and identity. One alternate personality may be angry and aggressive, for example, while another one is highly controlling. Over half of all reported cases involve the presence of ten or more experienced personalities. There may be frequent lapses of memory for periods during which another personality is in control. Sometimes one personality may function as an executive, allocating time to the others. Differences between the personalities can include differences in age, gender, vocabulary, general knowledge, or prevailing mood. 

When one of their childlike personalities is present, multiples may take a sudden interest in children's coloring books, and, like very young children, sometimes have difficulty staying within the lines of the pictures they are supposed to color. They may enjoy playing games which are more appropriate to children than to adults. Multiples may also be surprised to find themselves in possession of clothing, cosmetics, or foodstuffs which they have no recollection of purchasing and which their current personality may not even like.  They may hear voices which can be just as clear as spoken speech -- but, unlike many schizophrenics, the voices are experienced as coming from within their head rather than from without. 

People who qualify for a diagnosis of DID may also present with symptoms of substance abuse, borderline personality disorder, mood disorders, sleep disturbances, or other psychiatric diagnoses. They may suffer from various co-existing physical complaints, such as asthma, migraines, sleep disorders, digestive disorders, and irritable bowel syndrome. Their tendency to repeat earlier patterns of abuse renders them especially vulnerable to episodic or ongoing victimization -- by lovers, marriage partners, or even casual online acquaintances. 

One client who is a genuine multiple has shown me printouts from a Web site operated for people diagnosed as having DID. Although there may be only ten to twenty people who actually belonged to this site, the actual number of members was over two hundred, because each personality was given a name and allowed to register and post entries separately, sometimes arguing or disagreeing with the other personalities with whom they shared a common physical body.  She informed me that the site was very secretive, and operated like a cult. Its "members" were generally opposed to psychotherapy, because their separate personalities do not want to be integrated.  Indeed, they were inclined to view any therapist who attempted such integration as a potential executioner! My client reports that she was blocked from membership because, in her efforts to collect information about this site, the administrators began to suspect that she was an "informant." The site was subsequently closed, and many of the former members organized a secret group on Facebook.

Popular literature has emphasized the fact that multiples are usually highly hypnotizable due to their great capacity for dissociation. However, because of their constant vigilance against potential sources of danger, some of their personalities may not be.

Psychotherapy with trauma survivors may proceed unevenly, because statements made by one personality may not be remembered by another one with different opinions concerning the previous trauma. This can sometimes lead to complications, with one personality defending, and another condemning, either the abuser or the therapist. Multiples with co-existing condiions such as borderline personality disorder may carry this idealization and devaluation to extremes, with a perpetual "battle going on inside their head" as to which one to defend or condemn at a given point in time. 

The first stage in psychotherapy with multiples and other abuse survivors is to make the client feel safe, in order to avoid triggering previous traumas. It is necessary when working with DID clients to  rely more on providing an environment in which they can feel comfortable, instead of trying to uncover all of their previous traumatic memories, with the goal of providing "insight," which might only serve to re-traumatize them and extend the course of therapy indefinitely. (As one multiple exclaimed, "What insight? They were horrible!")  

After this basic level of security and safety has been attained, client and therapist can then collaborate in the construction of a therapeutic relationship which will increase feelings of confidence and self-esteem, overcome anxiety, depression, and despair, and bring forth an optimistic outlook on life which enables them change the narrative of their life story. (Levine, 1997; Naparstek, 2004; Rothschild, 2000; Scaer, 2007).  These new methods of treatment by the world's leading trauma researchers and clinicians constitue  ". . .a paradigm for understanding trauma's far-reaching psychological and physical consequences, without which, psychotherapeutic interventions remain extremely limited, and at times harmful to our clients." 

The following video from PESI Seminars features some of the world's leading experts discussing how recent breakthroughts in the treatment of trauma, dissociation, and multiple personality are making it possible for clients who have gone years without improvement to finally begin to change.      






The principle that the most important aspect of trauma treatment is to first construct an atmosphere of warm acceptance, which in itself may be all that is necessary for some clients, may be illustrated poetically by the following verses by Lewis Carrol, in which the therapist (the Walrus) and the client (the Carpenter) discuss the absurdities of life until the problems which have sought to overtake them (the oysters) have all been consumed.


The Walrus and the Carpenter - Lewis Carrol

The sun was shining on the sea,
Shining with all his might:
He did his very best to make
The billows smooth and bright--
And this was odd, because it was
The middle of the night.


The moon was shining sulkily,
Because she thought the sun
Had got no business to be there
After the day was done--
"It's very rude of him," she said,
"To come and spoil the fun!"


The sea was wet as wet could be,
The sands were dry as dry.
You could not see a cloud, because
No cloud was in the sky:
No birds were flying overhead--
There were no birds to fly.


The Walrus and the Carpenter
Were walking close at hand;
They wept like anything to see
Such quantities of sand:
"If this were only cleared away,"
They said, "it would be grand!"


"If seven maids with seven mops
Swept it for half a year.
Do you suppose," the Walrus said,
"That they could get it clear?"
"I doubt it," said the Carpenter,
And shed a bitter tear.


"O Oysters, come and walk with us!"
The Walrus did beseech.
"A pleasant walk, a pleasant talk,
Along the briny beach:
We cannot do with more than four,
To give a hand to each."


The eldest Oyster looked at him,
But never a word he said:
The eldest Oyster winked his eye,
And shook his heavy head--
Meaning to say he did not choose
To leave the oyster-bed.


But four young Oysters hurried up,
All eager for the treat:
Their coats were brushed, their faces washed,
Their shoes were clean and neat--
And this was odd, because, you know,
They hadn't any feet.


Four other Oysters followed them,
And yet another four;
And thick and fast they came at last,
And more, and more, and more--
All hopping through the frothy waves,
And scrambling to the shore.


The Walrus and the Carpenter
Walked on a mile or so,
And then they rested on a rock
Conveniently low:
And all the little Oysters stood
And waited in a row.


"The time has come," the Walrus said,
"To talk of many things:
Of shoes--and ships--and sealing-wax--
Of cabbages--and kings--
And why the sea is boiling hot--
And whether pigs have wings."


"But wait a bit," the Oysters cried,
"Before we have our chat;
For some of us are out of breath,
And all of us are fat!"
"No hurry!" said the Carpenter.
They thanked him much for that.


"A loaf of bread," the Walrus said,
"Is what we chiefly need:
Pepper and vinegar besides
Are very good indeed--
Now if you're ready, Oysters dear,
We can begin to feed."


"But not on us!" the Oysters cried,
Turning a little blue.
"After such kindness, that would be
A dismal thing to do!"
"The night is fine," the Walrus said.
"Do you admire the view?


"It was so kind of you to come!
And you are very nice!"
The Carpenter said nothing but
"Cut us another slice:
I wish you were not quite so deaf--
I've had to ask you twice!"


"It seems a shame," the Walrus said,
"To play them such a trick,
After we've brought them out so far,
And made them trot so quick!"
The Carpenter said nothing but
"The butter's spread too thick!"


"I weep for you," the Walrus said:
"I deeply sympathize."
With sobs and tears he sorted out
Those of the largest size,
Holding his pocket-handkerchief
Before his streaming eyes.


"O Oysters," said the Carpenter,
"You've had a pleasant run!
Shall we be trotting home again?'
But answer came there none--
And this was scarcely odd, because
They'd eaten every one.



References

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, DSM-V, 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Forward, S. (1997). Emotional blackmail: When the people in your life use fear, obligation, and guilt to manipulate you. New York: Harper-Collins.  

Forward, S. & Buck, C. (2002). Toxic parents: Overcoming their hurtful legacy and reclaiming your life. New York: Bantam.

Levine, P.A. (1997). Waking the Tiger: Healing Trauma. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Naparstek, B. (2004). Invisible heroes: Survivors of trauma and how they heal. New York: Bantam.

Rothschild, B. (2000), The body remembers: The psychophysiology of trauma and treatment. New York: Norton.  (Click on the link for a YouTube book review.)

Scaer, R. C. (2007) The body bears the burden: Trauma, dissociation, and disease. New York: Routledge.

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The Blog contains many other examples of experience as an art form, for the enhancement of human potential, the ennoblement of the human spirit, and the fulfillment of human existence.


See also the following print sources:

Gibbons, D. E. (2001). Experience as an art form. .New York, NY: Authors Choice Press.

Gibbons, D. E. (2000). Applied hypnosis and hyperempiria. Lincoln, NE: Authors Choice Press (originally published 1979 by Plenum Press).

Gibbons, D. E., & Cavallaro, L (2013).. Exploring alternate universes: And learning what they can teach us. Amazon Kindle E-Books. (Note: It is not necessary to own a Kindle reader to download this e-book, as the Kindle app may be downloaded free of charge to a standard desktop or laptop computer and to most cell phones.)

Gibbons, D. E., & Lynn, S. J. (2010). Hypnotic inductions: A primer. in S. J. Lynn, J. W. Rhue, & I. Kirsch (Eds.) Handbook of clinical hypnosis, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 267-291.