Don E. Gibbons, Ph.D., NJ Licensed Psychologist #03513
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The New Center for Counseling and Psychotherapy, LLC

The New Center for Counseling and Psychotherapy, LLC, is located at 703 Mill Creek Road, Suite G #1, Manahawkin, NJ 08050. Telephone us at(609)709-2043 and(609) 709-0009. We will welcome you warmly and will work together with you to develop a plan which is individually suited to your goals, utilizing a variety of therapeutic approaches including cognitive behavioral, family systems, psychodynamic, humanistic, and eclectic approaches as well as hypnosis. We accept Medicare and most other major insurance. Weekend and evening office hours are available.

Wednesday, July 30, 2014

"Hypnotic Virtuosos:" the Next Step Upward in Human Evolution?

Where do We Go from Here?

On October 23, 2012, +Chris Witherspoon posted the following report on the Hypnothoughts discussion forum:
Just had to share this. I had an early morning call from a client wanting to cancel. He went on to say that he had an out break of shingles. He said he was in a great deal of pain. I told him no need to cancel, hypnosis is very effective for pain issues. He kept the appointment and when he came in the shingle blisters were huge, white and shiny. I did a session using suggestions of a healing cooling blue white light that cooled his hand he then transferred the cooling healing sensation to the area of discomfort. We practice this a few time then asked him to rate the discomfort before the session and now. He told me it was off the scale before and now down to a two. I had him preform the healing ritual again until the discomfort completely disappeared. I then went on to suggest that the blisters would immediately begin to shrink, all the fluid would begin to be absorbed by his body. I suggested that healing would be excellerated. I then brought him back to the here and now, turned on the light and looked at the blisters. I have worked with pain before but never with and active case of shingles. Before the session he had a cluster of about ten blisters on his upper arm. These blisters were huge, white and shiny before the session after the session there er only two or three that were still rather large but even they were smaller and no longer shiny. He reported that the he was no longer experiencing the discomfort. This is the first time I actually witnessed the power of someone's mind to make physical changes. This was really exciting. This is why I love hypnosis.
A few days later, Chris posted the following update:
I saw the guy last week and was honestly amazed by what happened during the session.  He came in this week for a session on a no going issue.  I had tried to contact him during the past week to no avail.  I was anxious to get a report on how he was doing. When he sat down he pushed his shirt sleeve up a bit and there was a small scab and five red spots that were not a scab but not normal skin tone.  He told me that the spots on his hand and wrist were the worse and they were now just scabs.  We he was at the doctor's for treatment before he saw me and they told him that it may take 4-8 weeks for this to clear up.  Don't expect it to go away quickly.  He was extremely pleased with the outcome of our session and reported that the absence of pain lasted for about a day then he used the technique I taught him and he said he was able to keep it within a tolerable level.   I have a very happy client, no pain and almost completely healed.
Is there a special subgroup of "hypnotic virtuosos," more highly evolved than the rest, who are capable of mental feats which are not yet available to other mortals? Chris posted the following reply to my question as to whether or not such an "experientially gifted elite" does exist, and whether their abilities can be further enhanced by hypnosis.
Don this may be true.  I don't know.  This client does have a very good imagination, he follows directions easily and goes naturally into a deep trance.  He told me how as a teen he would visualize places he rather be when he was sitting in classes.  I just knew I had to give it a try.  I once experienced a spontaneous healing of a cut on my finger.  This was years before I was even exposed to hypnosis.  I was at a church service where there was a healing service going on.  Some people went forward to have people lay hands on them, I just looked at the cut on my finger and wondered if it could be healed.  I then got involved with what was going on in the church and the next time I looked at the finger it was completely healed over.  I knew intellectually that a person in trance could accelerate their healing, so I gave it a try.
What I didn't know is that he was told that it would take several weeks to achieve healing.  I am just tickled it was accepted as a plausible suggestion. . . .I was just the guide, all that happened was because the client had a good imagination and was able to believe and follow my instructions.
I am not talking about so-called "positive thinking" creating any metaphysical changes, as has been advocated by books such as The Secret, which has soundly been debunked. But the possible evolutionary explanation for particularly dramatic results with suggestion and/or hypnosis, such as curing warts, for example, may have been obscured, IMHO, because many people want to believe that anyone is capable of such feats. If special talent exists in art, music, and in the realms of intellectual and social intelligence, why shouldn't there also be hypnotic virtuosos? 

In order to be fully accepted as part of scientific knowledge, an unusual result must be replicable under the same conditions which initially produced it. But what If there should happen to dwell among us a small number people, more highly evolved than the rest, who are capable of prodigious feats of mind, which can be developed and strengthened still further by hypnosis and hyperempiria? Whenever one of these cases is brought to light, if we cannot repeat it ourselves and get the same result, the natural tendency for those of us who are trained in the scientific method is simply to dismiss it, attributing the initial report to faulty observation, poor controls, or experimenter bias.  But, what if . . . .?

The world-renowned physicist Steven Hawking, for example, points out in the following video that we at least several million light years away from other forms of life in the Universe. Since no electromagnetic transmissions which indicate the presence of life have so far been detected. What if thought is not limited by the speed of light, and is therefore independent of the usual constraints of time and space?  Is it possible that experientially gifted individuals might be able to detect such communications when they have been made sufficiently sensitive and receptive through the use of hyperempiria, or suggestion-enhanced experience, in deep hypnosis?  Research to investigate these possibilities is currently underway.




See also: 
Exploring the Multiverse for Personal Growth.
Hyperempiria for Improving Psychic Abilities

Sunday, July 27, 2014

"The Secret" is "Out!"

The central theme of the book, "The Secret," is that we create our own reality by "the law of attraction." If we send forth positive thoughts, then we attract positive events to us; and if we send forth negative thoughts, then we attract negative events. But if we really do create our own reality by sending forth positive or negative thoughts, then this effect should be apparent not only in individuals, but also in groups, in historical trends, and in society as a whole. Therefore, we should be able to examine the validity of "the law of attraction" by examining the degree to which it operates in these other areas of experience. I have listed below the comments which my friend Roy Hunter reports as having been made to individuals who are suffering from cancer and other maladies, and taken the liberty of constructing a reply to them.   
  • What did you do to attract cancer in the first place? What about all those people who get cancer because they are living in an area where there is a high level of carcinogens in the environment?
  • You have a disease consciousness. The Black Death killed between 75 and 200 million people, between 1348 and 1350. What could all those people have been thinking that caused such a plague to so suddenly come upon them?
  • You must have a karmic debt to pay off.  If you read The Diary of Anne Frank, you will get a good idea of the kind of person she was. Now consider the fate of Ann and others like her as they covered with lice and dying of hypothermia in a Nazi concentration camp during World War II. What did they do to deserve this?
  • Why can’t you create enough faith to be healed? Age is a wasting disease. And the survival rate for this particular disease is zero.
  • Don’t you know smoking will kill you? With 99% of the same genes as our closest simian cousins, the chimpanzees, and over a century of experimental research to back them up, most psychologists agree that short-term pleasure is often more important than long-term consequences in determining our behavior, particularly when it comes to matters of addiction.
  • Fat people are out of control. An African journalist recently stated that her greatest surprise in coming to the United States was to discover that in America, thin people are rich and fat people are poor, since in her own country the reverse is true. If this is the case, how can weight be a function of one's personal discipline rather than one's culture?
  • You have a poverty consciousness. The CIA World Factbook lists the United States as twelfth in per capita income, behind such nations as Norway and Hong Kong, yet most Americans are inclined to think of themselves as the richest nation in the world. If we create our own reality, why are we not in first place?
  • "Get out of the victim trap!" Tell the survivors of Stalinist tyranny who were imprisoned in Siberia that they shouldn't have been thinking so negatively about their situation that it caused them to wind up there.
  • Why did you create this problem? The CIA World Factbook lists the United States as fiftieth from the top in infant mortality compared with other nations. Explain to the parents of the babies who died because they were not given better medical care what they or their children did to create this problem.
  • What is God punishing you for?  If God is keeping quiet about His reasons, then what is the point of punishment?
  • If “The Secret” is not working for you, then you must be doing something wrong.  Maybe so!  On a recent radio interview show featuring a leading theoretical physicist who was commenting upon the latest discoveries in his field, a questioner asked him about the "law of attraction." He forcefully criticized the promulgators of this belief for misleading people, and assured the caller that the universe simply does not work that way. Perhaps what people who subscribe to this false doctrine are doing wrong is believing in "The Secret" in the first place.
Of course there can be negative and self-destructive attitudes within the personality which interfere with the successful accomplishment of a goal, and which contribute to the development of  psychosomatic conditions! But their operation and effects are well-documented in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

A more narrow, focused investigation of psychic abilities is the subject of ongoing research by the Parapsychological Association.  "an international professional organization of scientists and scholars engaged in the study of psi (or 'psychic') experiences, such as telepathy, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, psychic healing, and precognition.  The primary objective of the PA is to achieve a scientific understanding of these experiences." It also appears possible that some of these phenomena may be focused and directed using hyperempiria, or suggestion-enhanced experience, or by a method described by Claude Bristol in his book, The Magic of Believing, which is available in audio format on ny blog free of charge.

One might well ask why the mind works this way, I cannot answer you from science, because in science the question why is unanswerable For those of  a certain religious persuasion, however. the answer may be found in Scripture.
"For verily I say unto you, that whosoever shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that those things which he saith shall come to pass; he shall have whatsoever he saith." -- Mark 11:23
Basically, it is not enough simply to have thoughts and images, as advocated in The Secret. You also have to have intention. In order to believe it, you have to believe in it. And in order to believe in it, you can have no room for doubt in your heart. A tall order, but IMHO that, according to "the Maaan," is the secret.
In fairness, it should be added that in the ensuing centuries, a whole specialty in Christian theology known as "apologetics" has emerged, which provides alternative interpretations to the foregoing verse (try Googling it and you'll see what I mean!) and indeed, to almost every verse in the Bible. These specialists unabashedly refer to themselves and to each other as "apologists." However, It is also true that every major religion has its saints and mystics who have reportedly been capable of miraculous works in the name of their faith.. Perhaps trust in an all-powerful being, which might be facilitated by the use of hyperempiria,  is sometimes helpful as a precondition to activate our own psychic abilities. (Perhaps the secret is out!)

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Is it Possible to Hypnotize Animals?

Train? Yes. Hypnotize? No.
A while back, I was having lunch with another hypnotist and a third person, who asked my hypnotist friend whether or not it was possible to hypnotize animals. She replied that it was, and I did not contradict her out of politeness.  Indeed, I have occasionally seen references to animal hypnosis in the literature. For example, there is a book written in German entitled Menschen und Tierhypnose (Human and Animal Hypnosis), published by G. B. Schmid in Zurich in 1938. But in order to determine whether or not it is posible to hypnotize animals, we first have to ask, "What do we use hypnosis for?" We use it, as Terence watts has said, "as a delivery method for suggestions that make changes" -- to change people's beliefs about themselves, the world, and the future." Can we do that with animals? No! 

But isn't hypnosis just an enhanced form of communiication? Communication! Bees do it, ants do it, chimps do it, and horse whisperers do it. But only humankind is the storytelling animal. and therefore we are the only species that can make use of what +michael ellner has referred to as "the transformational magic" of an induction to provide both the opportunity and the occasion for those who have the ability to use teheir information in an "Alice-in-Wonderland" fashion to go ahead and do so..  


Social psychologists have amply documented that an attitude, or a tendency to respond in a certain way, is made up not only of an action component, but a belief component and an emotional component as well. As experiential hypnotists, we can intervene at any one of these levels, or a combination of them, to  change humsn behavior. But with other animals, less cognitively endowed than we are, we are largely left with only two componentsof an attitude, emotions and behavior, to work with. 

When I presented on the topic of hyperempiria, or suggestion-enhanced experience, at the Royal Society of Medicine in London, a member of the ajudience noted that she could obtain good results with anxious clients by lapsing into her native Gaelic, even though they did not understand a word of it.  +Kelley Woods recentlt noted in the hypnosis forum, Hypnothoughts, that she was able to cure both a dog and its owner of separation anxiety with a couple of hypnosis sessions while the dog peacefully slept at the owner's side. Whenever we go away for vacation, our cat won't let us out of his sight for a week when we return,even though he has  been well taken care of by a friend. The question is not whether cats and dogs are capable of experiencing separation anxiety, but whether or not there is more to this than meets the eye. Was it Kelly's spoken suggestions, or was it her soothing voice, that produced the results with the dog and, to a certain extent, with the owner as well?  

Sufi mystics pose this question: "Imagine the sound of two hands clapping. Now, imagine the sound of one hand clapping. . . ." Language is a model of reality, and we sometimes tend to confuse the model with the reality it represents -- even when the model breaks down.  My own preference is to use a more conservative definition of hypnosis as experience mediated by suggestion, and  "let sleeping dogs lie!"





How to Construct Hypnotic Suggestions and Autosuggestions Scientifically!


Most of us wouldn't quarrel with a definition of suggestion as "presenting an idea in such a manner that a person is likely to accept it as literally true, and therefore 'real.'" But hypnotists aren't the only ones whose work centers around making changes in the perception of reality!

Cognitive-behaviorial psychology works with automatic thoughts, which tell us how to respond to what is going on around us. Challenging people's automatic thoughts and substituting more adaptive ones is one way to produce a more efective adjustment to life. And, according to the definition just presented, these new ideas also qualify as suggestions. 

When the environment is pretty much the same for everyone, as it is in a standardized test such as the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Suggestibility, well-documented individual differences in suggestibility do exist. However, if you vary the environment enough, these individual differences disappear. Imagine, for example. that the Harvard Group Scale is being given to a class of introductory psychology students at the American University of Beirut, let us say, when a person dressed in a police uniform bursts into the room and says in a loud, commanding voice, "The city is under biological attack, and a germ cloud is headed this way. Take refuge in the basement immediately and await further instructions!" Even if such an announcement is a hoax (i.e., a cleverly-designed suggestion) thought up by a dissident student organization to disrupt the orderly running of campus activities, if it were to be carried out in a sufficiently convincing manner, everyone in the class -- including the instructor -- would probably dash for the exits and head for the nearest underground shelter, manifesting a variety of emotional and cognitive responses to this suggestion without the necessity of a hypnotic induction!

Another way to vary the suggestions enough so that individual differences disappear is to customize them to fit the needs of each person to whom they are given, as cognitive-behavioral therapists do. It is generally acknowledged that the cognitive-behavioral approach is the fastest-growing orientation in psychology, with an ever-growing body of research behind it. Since both high and low-suggestible people respond better to any treatment if you first convince them that they have been hypnotized (Robertson, 2013), if the cognitive-behavioral way of constructing suggestions is more scientific, and therefore more effective, than suggestions generated by other means, then perhaps this method should also be adopted by more people who use hypnosis.

Contrary to what cognitive-behaviorists sometimes advocate, not all clients are suited for working with thought records themselves. As hypnotists, however, thought records can be of great help to us in helping us to analyze a client's problem in scientific terms, in explaining a situation to a client, and in deciding what suggestions to provide and what autosuggestions to teach the client to use.  For this reason, I am including more information in this posting to illustrate how cognitive-behavioral therapy may be utilized in a variety of ways. (I routinely use them both in my clinical psychology practice, sometimes individually and sometimes together.)    

This free downloadable ABC Worksheet from www.smartrecovery.org can become your daily companion for taking control of your life in matters large and small. You can use it to make motivational and behavioral adjustments on everything from paying your bills on time, to stopping smoking, or deciding on which career path to follow. (If you don't have the necessary Adobe Acrobat Reader, you can also download it free of charge.)

It first asks you about the causes of something you would like to change in your life, and then asks about the emotional consequences which were the result, your beliefs about what happened, what beliefs could be substituted for the ones which brought about the unpleasant results, and how those changed beliefs make you feel. You can write on the form itself, clearing and changing it as often as you like. Then, when you are finished, you can either print it out or save it as a text file, using a different form for each problem you would like to work on. No induction is needed, and there are no individual differences in suggestibility to take into account, because each suggestion is individually customized to fit the circumstances and thought patterns of the individual to whom it is given.

Cognitive-behavioral therapists also frequently use a document called a thought record in order to examine just what goes on in the mind when we make those habitual decisions that keep getting us into trouble . . . Here is what one looks like, and here is what it looks like all filled out, courtesy of www.getselfhelp.co.uk.  (A slightly longer, seven-column version of the same form is also available.)  Here are other free versions of the thought record form, adapted for special purposes:
You can make as many copies as you want for your own use by using the print command on your computer, and you can also obtain different versions for a host of other purposes. In addition, there is a free online self-help course and other materials on how to use them. Naturally, I cannot be responsible for the accuracy or the effectiveness of self-help materials downloaded from the Internet. Moreover,as a psychologist, I am a little more conservative than they are about what can legitimately be included within the rubric of "self-help."  But in any event, it works, and no induction is necessary -- although, of course, it helps!.

Reference

Robertson, D. J. (2013). The practice of cognitive-behavioural hypnotherapy. London: Karnac Books, Ltd.
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This Blog contains many other examples of experience as an art form, for the enhancement of human potential, the ennoblement of the human spirit, and the fulfillment of human existence.


See also the following print sources:

Gibbons, D. E. (2001). Experience as an art form. .New York, NY: Authors Choice Press.

Gibbons, D. E. (2000). Applied hypnosis and hyperempiria. Lincoln, NE: Authors Choice Press (originally published 1979 by Plenum Press).

Gibbons, D. E., & Cavallaro, L (2013).. Exploring alternate universes: And learning what they can teach us. Amazon Kindle E-Books. (Note: It is not necessary to own a Kindle reader to download this e-book, as the Kindle app may be downloaded free of charge to a standard desktop or laptop computer and to most cell phones.)

Gibbons, D. E., & Lynn, S. J. (2010). Hypnotic inductions: A primer. in S. J. Lynn, J. W. Rhue, & I. Kirsch (Eds.) Handbook of clinical hypnosis, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 267-291.



The Storytelling Animal


There is no absurdity that will not be widely accepted, 
especially by the young  if it is frequently repeated 
by those in authority with great solemnity.
Human beings are natural storytellers. When we are asleep and dreaming, we are telling stories to ourselves. We are literally writing ourselves a play about the problems that concern us, expressing our concerns, and possibly exploring various outcomes and solutions. Every society tells stories to its children which attempts to explain, in terms that children can understand, the meaning of life, the purpose of existence, and the identity of the people into whom they were born.  As adults, we re-enact aspects of these same stories in patriotic and religious rituals. Unfortunately, the storytelling power of society is so great that it can become an instrument of incalculable harm. 

Perhaps the most striking illustration of the abuse of the power of suggestion through storytelling is Adolf Hitler's speech to a congress of  Nazi Party members. Note his expressions of smug satisfaction in the following video (with a cameo appearance by other Nazi bigwigs and a nodding Mussolini), and how the audience cheers him, as he boasts that he has destroyed every other political power in Germany. Then, when the frenzy has reached its height, Deputy Fuehrer Rudolf Hess concludes the proceedings with the assertion that the Nazi Party and Hitler are one, and that Hitler is Germany and Germany is Hitler!  The rest, as they say, is history. 

(In case the video does not appear on your smartphone or other electronic device, here's a link to the original YouTube posting of: A Historical Adolf Hitler Speech (with English subtitles).




How does this process get started? By the time we have begun to speak, we start to form a self-concept consisting of a series of storytelling suggestions, whether favorable or unfavorable, which summarize who we are as individuals, as defined by society, or parents, and our peers. These stories are often extremely hard to change because, regardless of whether or not they reflect favorably upon us, we tend to cling to them with all the strength we use to cling to life itself. These stories are our life!  Whether they will continue to be acted out by those to whom they are given, or whether they will eventually be rejected (usually with great difficulty), depends upon the amount of conflict they create with other needs and loyalties.       
  
Suggestions which are presented after the self has been formed will also tend to become permanent if they are composed in such a way as to  enhance the ongoing personal life-story of each individual to whom they are given, as was true in the case of Hitler's speech to Nazi party members, shown above. When they are worded in such a way that they can be incorporated into the person's self-concept, they will then be defended with all the power of "self-preservation!"  

 I am fond of quoting a well-known story about a boy who had become shy and withdrawn because his face was disfigured by a birthmark -- until his grandmother told him that this was a special sign from God that he was destined for greatness. Although he did not become famous, he grew up to experience a much more successful life than he otherwise would have had were it not for his grandmother's prediction, which had become a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Most of us are familiar with Dickens' story, "A Christmas Carol," in which the miserly Scrooge has a dramatic personality change after he is visited by three spirits: the Ghost of Christmas Past, who shows him the innocence of his youth and the girl he almost married; the Ghost of Christmas Present, who shows him both the good and evil in his life as it exists today; and the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come, who shows the merchants fighting over every scrap of his belongings after his death, and the misery he has left behind him. Scrooge implores the third spirit, to tell him that these ends are not fixed if he changes his ways. Then when he wakes up back in his apartment in the present, this epiphany changes him from an old grouch to a lovable gentleman who "knew how to keep Christmas better than anyone."


Today, of course, we know that we need to use reward rather than fear as the basis of lasting experiential change. If Dickens were writing in the Twenty-First Century instead of the Nineteenth, instead of describing three visits by three different spirits to Mr. Scrooge, he might have written about three visits to an experiential hypnotist. And instead of giving him the fright of his life (which is probably where the expression, "scaring the Dickens out of him" came from), a modern hypnotist would employ a technique known as post-modern constructionism. That is, he would provide Scrooge with a series of reward-based contextual suggestions which are congruent with the total pattern of his personality in order to bring about permanent, lasting change. 

I also like to quote Steve Lynn's summary of our Induction chapter in the American Psychological Association's Handbook of Clinical Hypnosis, as a summary of contextual suggestion in clinical settings:
 . . .how clients respond to suggestions depends less on the nature and success of a particular induction than on the following variables: (a) clients' prehypnotic attitudes, beliefs, intentions, and expectations about hypnosis; (b) their ability to think, fantasize, and absorb themselves in suggestions; (c) their ability to form a trusting relationship with the hypnotist; (d) their ability to interpret suggestions appropriately and view their responses as successful; (e) their ability to discern task demands and cues; (f) their ongoing interaction with the hypnotist; and (g) the appropriateness of the therapeutic methods and suggestions to treating the presenting problem. . . . Accordingly, clinicians should devise inductions and suggestions with these variables in mind and tailor their approach to the unique personal characteristics and agenda of each client they encounter" (Gibbons & Lynn, 2010, p. 289).
Too many unsophisticated therapists tend to approach the use of suggestion as if they were  looking for the perfect NLP technique, formula, or script for everything, without sufficiently taking the unique characteristics of each individual into consideration. When the factors just mentioned are properly applied, it is possible to compose suggestions you can not merely  believe but which you can wholeheartedly believe in  -- in their essential goodness and rightness for you and for your life. And when you can believe in it a suggestion as well as merely believing it, the suggestion will definitely not "wear off." Instead, it is highly likely that this suggestion will act as a self-fulfilling prophecy which acts to bring about about the very circumstances you envision. When suggestions are properly composed, and can be modified to suit changing circumstances, you will be providing a journey which makes the destination worthwhile!

But isn't stopping smoking, or drinking, or abusing drugs worthwhile? Isn't losing weight worthwhile? Isn't regular study for the high school or college student who is failing in school worthwhile?  Apparently not, for millions of people who would like to make these changes in their lives, but find themselves unable to do so because the rewards are too far in the future to affect their behavior now, in the present, when the changes actually need to be made. That's where properly-worded storytelling suggestions which enhance the way that people experience life and experience themselves, right now, in the present can make a difference. 

 

The Blog contains many other examples of experience as an art form, for the enhancement of human potential, the ennoblement of the human spirit, and the fulfillment of human existence.


See also the following print sources:

Gibbons, D. E. (2001). Experience as an art form. .New York, NY: Authors Choice Press.

Gibbons, D. E. (2000). Applied hypnosis and hyperempiria. Lincoln, NE: Authors Choice Press (originally published 1979 by Plenum Press).

Gibbons, D. E., & Cavallaro, L (2013).. Exploring alternate universes: And learning what they can teach us. Amazon Kindle E-Books. (Note: It is not necessary to own a Kindle reader to download this e-book, as the Kindle app may be downloaded free of charge to a standard desktop or laptop computer and to most cell phones.)

Gibbons, D. E., & Lynn, S. J. (2010). Hypnotic inductions: A primer. in S. J. Lynn, J. W. Rhue, & I. Kirsch (Eds.) Handbook of clinical hypnosis, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 267-291.